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    The post Indian Farmers Facing Affliction appeared first on The Borgen Project.

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    The post Home Gardens: Alleviating Hunger in Developing Countries appeared first on The Borgen Project.

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Zimbabwe Initiative to End Hunger and Poverty

hunger and povertyPresident Mnangagwa of Zimbabwe announced that the government has committed itself to end hunger and poverty in the country by expanding and improving its agricultural strategies. The president made this announcement at a United Pre-Food Systems Summit Dialogue hosted by the president of Malawi. Zimbabwe was one of many African countries that receive representation at the Summit.

Hunger in Zimbabwe

In the past two decades, farmers in Zimbabwe have struggled to feed the entire nation. In 2014, Africa Renewal reported that 2001 was “the last time Zimbabwe produced enough maize to meet its needs.” The reason for the lack of substantial produce is a deficit of financial support for the agriculture system in the country.

The COVID-19 pandemic has only heightened the inconsistency of agricultural produce. This is prevalent in the recovery of agriculture as a result of improved control of COVID-19 cases in the country. Food inflation during May 2021 was at 179% and records determined that prices were at a 0% to 20% decrease, according to the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA).

Progress Toward Ending Hunger

While the agriculture industry in Zimbabwe may be on the mend since the pandemic, there is still work that needs to occur. For example, 2021’s Global Report on Food Crises has found that there has been no recent progress toward the goal of reaching “zero hunger” in the world by 2030.

This is one of the motivating factors behind President Mnangagwa’s decision to end hunger and poverty in Zimbabwe. He claims that Zimbabwe’s best strategy requires that “institutions of higher learning must be roped in to offer innovation that climate-proofs the vital agriculture sector,” as the Zimbabwe Chronicle reported.

Higher-learning institutions can provide farmers and agricultural members with the knowledge of how to better cultivate the food they need. The institutions can also give resources for financial assistance, equipment access, lessons on nutrition and strengthening strategies within Zimbabwe’s food systems. With this strategy, the president believes that the agriculture system in Zimbabwe will be able to grow.

Boosting Zimbabwe’s Economy

As evidence suggests, the growth of agriculture and food systems in Zimbabwe is the key to boosting the entire economy. President Mnangagwa explains that “the present economic blueprint” and the country’s agriculture and food systems development plans “situates the agriculture sector as having a critical role in the overall development and growth of the economy.” He says further, “This is anchored on food and nutrition security, import substitution, exports generation, employment creation and the raising of household incomes.”

The positive development of agriculture in Zimbabwe is the key to ending hunger and poverty throughout the country. Agriculture provides citizens with food security and boosts the economy with exports, sales and employment. Thus, if the president’s plan falls into place as described, it could bring about a positive change for Zimbabwe, contributing to reduced global hunger and poverty.

– Riley Prillwitz
Photo: pixabay

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What To Know About Poverty in Zimbabwe

Poverty in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe once was a rising economy in Africa, with its mining and agricultural industries propelling the country forward. However, Zimbabweans now struggle with war, internal corruption, hyperinflation and industrial mismanagement. Below are eight facts about poverty in Zimbabwe, followed by some context.

8 Facts About Poverty in Zimbabwe

  1. Poverty affected 76.3% of Zimbabwean children living in rural areas as of 2020.
  2. Seventy-four percent of the population lives under $5.50 a day and the average wage per month is $253.
  3. Half of Zimbabwe’s 13.5 million people live under the food poverty line, and about 3.5 million children are chronically hungry.
  4. Approximately 1.3 million Zimbabweans were living with HIV as of 2016. However, the number of HIV cases has been declining since 1997 because of improvements in prevention, treatment and support services.
  5. Sixty percent of rural Zimbabwean women face period poverty, meaning they lack access to menstrual supplies or education. Girls who experience period poverty miss an estimated 20% of their school life.
  6. Due to famine and the HIV/AIDS crisis, the average life expectancy for a Zimbabwean was only 61 years as of 2018. However, life expectancy has steadily risen since 2002, when it was only 44.
  7. As of 2019, 2 million Zimbabweans had no access to safe drinking water.
  8. The government allocates a significant portion of the national budget toward education. As a result, Zimbabwe’s adult literacy rate is 89%, one of the highest in Africa.

Why Poverty is Rampant in Zimbabwe

Since Zimbabwe gained its independence in 1980, its economy has primarily depended on its mining and agricultural industries. Zimbabwe’s mining industry has immense potential, as the country is home to the Great Dyke, the second-largest platinum deposit globally. Additionally, Zimbabwe has more than 4,000 gold deposits.

However, the country’s mining sector is inefficient, as its gold output dropped 30% in the first quarter of 2021. While illegal gold mining hurts the industry, Zimbabwe’s lax mining licensing laws also allow foreign companies to mine minerals at cheap costs for years on end, leading to a lack of incentive to accelerate mineral production.

Furthermore, the Zimbabwean government’s decision to support the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the Second Congo War drained its bank reserves, alienated its allies and caused the U.S. and the E.U. to impose sanctions. Subsequently, Zimbabwe’s economy collapsed. As a result, the government began printing more money, leading to widespread hyperinflation of the Zimbabwean dollar.

NGOs Combating Poverty in Zimbabwe

However, the situation in Zimbabwe is improving. In 2021, Zimbabwe’s GDP could grow by nearly 3% in 2021 thanks to increased agricultural production, increased energy production and the resumption of manufacturing and construction activities. Unemployment rates will likely continue to decrease. The rebound is primarily due to increased vaccination efforts, with China providing 2 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines to the country.

In addition, multiple NGOs are fighting poverty in Zimbabwe. For example, Talia’s Women’s Network seeks to end period poverty in the country’s rural areas by helping 250 girls gain access to menstrual products. The project also seeks to provide the girls both with an understanding of the menstrual process and with access to support structures to combat early childhood marriage, gender-based violence and unwanted pregnancies.

Another organization, Action Change, feeds lunch to 400 primary students in Zimbabwe. It also works to break the cycle of poverty by providing resources for education. Zimbabwe spends 93% of the estimated $905 million it allocates towards education on employment costs, leaving only about 7% of the budget for classroom resources. Action Change provides schools with resources such as textbooks.

American Foundation for Children with AIDS helps 3,000 children and guardians who have AIDS by providing them with livestock and food self-sufficiency training. Meanwhile, the organization also provides resources and training to fight food insecurity and ensure that children eat well.

Stimulating the Agriculture Industry

The key to reducing poverty in Zimbabwe is stimulating the country’s agricultural industry. Nearly 66% of Zimbabweans rely on their small farms for survival. However, great inequality in water access exists between the country’s many small farms and few large commercial farms. Equality in water access would increase productivity and income for small farmers. A revitalization of the agricultural sector would spur economic growth and alleviate poverty in Zimbabwe.

Although the country has a long way to go to eradicate poverty, it also has immense potential to become an African superpower.

Matthew Port Louis
Photo: Flickr

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4 Agricultural Tech Startups in India

agricultural tech
Farmers make up more than 40% of the working population in India. These farmers work tirelessly to provide crops for the nation and other countries worldwide. To make their lives easier, agricultural tech startups in India have been developing new systems to make farming more efficient. CropIn, DeHaat, Fasal and Intello Labs are four startups that have been making a difference.

CropIn by SmartFarm

First, in 2010, CropIn’s founders developed a phone application called SmartFarm to produce profit reports and weather analyses. CropIn also optimizes crop production and digitizes farm ecosystems. Moreover, the company uses artificial intelligence (AI) and the internet of things (IoT) to provide precise and accurate data for farmers using the app. The startup additionally utilizes other software and applications. SmartRisk, SmartWare and RootTrace are examples that target different facets of the agricultural industry, including food safety and sustainability. The company has had a tremendous impact on India so far. The company has implemented the app on 13 million acres of land and helped 4 million farmers. Thus, the future of CropIn is hopeful. 

DeHaat’s Online Community 

In 2012, DeHaat began. One of its main goals is to provide an online community for farmers in India. DeHaat presents forecast reports, daily crop reminders, inputs on profit maximization, “advice on crops, pests, soil and seeds” and several other agricultural services. By focusing on the needs of farmers, DeHaat aims to increase profitability and productivity to reduce poverty. Furthermore, the company makes accessibility a priority. It offers an application, in which global users can communicate and a daily helpline for farmers without smartphones. This startup has helped over 210,000 farmers in India and expectations have determined that it will reach and serve more farmers within the coming years. 

Agricultural Tech Startup Fasal 

Fasal is a 2018 startup that improves accuracy within farming to increase profitability and eliminate guessing. The company developed an app to continuously monitor farm data, improving accessibility for farmers. Moreover, it created an IoT device called Fasal Sense that monitors the farm and collects data. Through AI, Fasal can deliver “farm-specific, crop-specific, crop-stage specific, actionable advisory.”

The village of Chhattisgarh is a prime example of Fasal’s success, where vegetable farmer Prasant Maroo started using the startup’s technology in 2018. Maroo noticed a 20% increase in production of two of Maroo’s main crops, chilli and brinjal. By using the AI technology that Fasal provided, he was able to use less water. Water accessibility and over-irrigation are prevalent issues in Indian villages currently, so this factor is very promising for improving living conditions. Additionally, Maroo is not the only farmer who has benefited from Fasal. Progress with irrigation schedules, forecast alerts and disease management are all the works. 

Digital Tech Through Intello Labs 

Intello Labs began in Gurugram, India. In 2016, the company made a goal to minimize food loss in farming through digital technology. It uses “AI, ML, and computer vision” to evaluate food quality in fruits and vegetables, improving the quality of goods that farmers grow, package and sell. Intello Labs developed an app that allows users to take pictures of multiple food items at a time and give feedback on the quality of the items. Users can also selectively pick the individual items they desire from a batch of produce, helping to eliminate waste. Overall, this startup is increasing food quality in a cost-efficient manner within the agricultural and food industry. 

The Future for India’s Agriculture 

In India, farmers and their families’ livelihood depend on agricultural success. Overall, agricultural tech startups in India, like CropIn, DeHaat, Fasal, Intello Labs and other companies, are allocating resources to yield quality food to the consumer and give every advantage possible with technology to farmers in India. With these four new innovative agricultural tech startups in India changing the way the country farms, AI and IoT can supply detailed data to reduce poverty and improve farming. 

– Karuna Lakhiani
Photo: Pixabay

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Solving Hunger and Poverty in the UAE

Hunger and Poverty in the UAETo alleviate food insecurity and poverty and reach the 2030 goals of the Agenda for Sustainable Development, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is using technology to increase the efficiency of farming and irrigation techniques. Throughout 2020, the UAE explored new and innovative solutions to reduce poverty and hunger. Solutions such as drone mapping, mobile applications and AI crop sensors have been crucial for mitigating food scarcity and eliminating hunger and poverty in the UAE.

Drone Mapping

Drones provide a solution to effectively map agricultural areas. Drone technology grants valuable agricultural information to farmers in order to better assess agricultural progress. Drones are able to collect important data such as soil type, salinity and livestock numbers as well as information on farming facilities. According to the company Falcon Eye Drones, drones speed up this data collection process, which typically takes years.

Moreover, farmers can use the information gathered to create agricultural plans. Drone mapping also helps with the allocation of resources. With more information about soil quality, farmers can effectively plan how to distribute water and chemicals for maximum impact. Drones also allow for crop monitoring, enabling farmers to predict agricultural outputs well in advance. Drone mapping saves resources and increases agricultural output, effectively helping to reduce hunger and poverty in the UAE.

Mobile Applications

The FreshOnTable application is another innovation reducing poverty and hunger in the UAE. Through the digital application, users can purchase produce from local vendors and have it delivered straight to their door. This process drastically cuts the carbon footprint normally attached to food distribution. In the app, users are able to see the source of their food and choose from a variety of options.

According to Gulf News, this application also reduces food waste by giving customers the option of choosing “imperfect vegetables,” which are just as healthy as the more aesthetically pleasing options. By cutting down on food waste through technology, FreshOnTable provides a solution to food insecurity.

AI-based Sensors in Irrigation

AI-based sensors monitor the surrounding temperatures of crops to improve irrigation. The sensors can also test the level of humidity and water content in the soil. Irrigation systems are employed more effectively with AI-based sensors in use. Irrigation sensors limit water waste and help with sustainable water use.

Farmers have more knowledge of the soil quality and water content of their land, allowing for a smoother irrigation process. In turn, the process helps maximize crop output because farmers use the information gathered to make data-informed agricultural decisions.

The Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority implemented a study between 2011 and 2013 to analyze the efficiency of smart irrigation systems that utilize AI technology. The results prove that the technology decreased water use by 10% in comparison to other estimation-based methods. Thus, smart irrigation systems are able to increase sustainability, save on costs and improve profitability for farmers. With better agricultural output, food insecurity is reduced.

The Future for the UAE

Overall, these technological innovations stand as examples of how technology can help solve hunger and poverty in the UAE, two deeply interconnected issues. Without drone mapping, the UAE would spend years collecting environmental data that can drastically improve agricultural outputs. In addition, food waste would be much higher without mobile applications to bridge the gap between farm and table. AI sensors maximize agricultural efficiency by reducing resource wastage. As countries strive to reach the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, technology-oriented solutions will help accelerate progress, bringing the international community closer to eliminating global poverty.

– Samuel Weinmann
Photo: Flickr

The post Solving Hunger and Poverty in the UAE appeared first on The Borgen Project.

Solving Hunger and Poverty in the UAE

Hunger and Poverty in the UAETo alleviate food insecurity and poverty and reach the 2030 goals of the Agenda for Sustainable Development, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is using technology to increase the efficiency of farming and irrigation techniques. Throughout 2020, the UAE explored new and innovative solutions to reduce poverty and hunger. Solutions such as drone mapping, mobile applications and AI crop sensors have been crucial for mitigating food scarcity and eliminating hunger and poverty in the UAE.

Drone Mapping

Drones provide a solution to effectively map agricultural areas. Drone technology grants valuable agricultural information to farmers in order to better assess agricultural progress. Drones are able to collect important data such as soil type, salinity and livestock numbers as well as information on farming facilities. According to the company Falcon Eye Drones, drones speed up this data collection process, which typically takes years.

Moreover, farmers can use the information gathered to create agricultural plans. Drone mapping also helps with the allocation of resources. With more information about soil quality, farmers can effectively plan how to distribute water and chemicals for maximum impact. Drones also allow for crop monitoring, enabling farmers to predict agricultural outputs well in advance. Drone mapping saves resources and increases agricultural output, effectively helping to reduce hunger and poverty in the UAE.

Mobile Applications

The FreshOnTable application is another innovation reducing poverty and hunger in the UAE. Through the digital application, users can purchase produce from local vendors and have it delivered straight to their door. This process drastically cuts the carbon footprint normally attached to food distribution. In the app, users are able to see the source of their food and choose from a variety of options.

According to Gulf News, this application also reduces food waste by giving customers the option of choosing “imperfect vegetables,” which are just as healthy as the more aesthetically pleasing options. By cutting down on food waste through technology, FreshOnTable provides a solution to food insecurity.

AI-based Sensors in Irrigation

AI-based sensors monitor the surrounding temperatures of crops to improve irrigation. The sensors can also test the level of humidity and water content in the soil. Irrigation systems are employed more effectively with AI-based sensors in use. Irrigation sensors limit water waste and help with sustainable water use.

Farmers have more knowledge of the soil quality and water content of their land, allowing for a smoother irrigation process. In turn, the process helps maximize crop output because farmers use the information gathered to make data-informed agricultural decisions.

The Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority implemented a study between 2011 and 2013 to analyze the efficiency of smart irrigation systems that utilize AI technology. The results prove that the technology decreased water use by 10% in comparison to other estimation-based methods. Thus, smart irrigation systems are able to increase sustainability, save on costs and improve profitability for farmers. With better agricultural output, food insecurity is reduced.

The Future for the UAE

Overall, these technological innovations stand as examples of how technology can help solve hunger and poverty in the UAE, two deeply interconnected issues. Without drone mapping, the UAE would spend years collecting environmental data that can drastically improve agricultural outputs. In addition, food waste would be much higher without mobile applications to bridge the gap between farm and table. AI sensors maximize agricultural efficiency by reducing resource wastage. As countries strive to reach the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, technology-oriented solutions will help accelerate progress, bringing the international community closer to eliminating global poverty.

– Samuel Weinmann
Photo: Flickr

The post Solving Hunger and Poverty in the UAE appeared first on The Borgen Project.

The Impacts of Palm Plantations in Guatemala

Palm plantations in GuatemalaIn the Central American nation of Guatemala, massive palm plantations have encroached upon many rural regions populated largely by indigenous people. While the palm oil companies have experienced financial success, many indigenous people have suffered under this new presence. The infringement on indigenous land rights and livelihoods calls for reform in Guatemala.

About Palm Plantations in Guatemalan Forests

Palm oil is the most widely consumed type of oil in the world and is found in 50% of all packaged products, according to the World Wildlife Fund. Palm trees grow in many tropical environments. In specific, palm plantations in Guatemala have exploded in presence and production over the past few decades. Since 2001, the amount of land covered by palm oil plantations in Guatemala has multiplied by five.

Around half of those plantations are located in the municipality of Sayaxché, which has a majority indigenous population. The plantations are taking over Guatemala’s forest area, leaving little room for the crops of subsistence farmers. Despite the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil deeming palm plantations sustainable, the activities of palm oil producers have polluted water sources used by indigenous populations. Furthermore, palm plantations are impacting people’s livelihoods as palm oil is now a dominant industry.

Impacts on Indigenous Guatemalans

Historically, indigenous people in rural Guatemala have made a living through subsistence farming and sustained themselves by consuming community-grown food. With palm oil as the dominant industry and little remaining land for farming, many subsistence farmers have to transition to working in palm plantations. Palm plantation work is arduous, requiring extremely long hours. Despite long working hours, the pay is not adequate for households to make ends meet.

Dorrian Caal, a palm oil industry worker, told Reuters that he earned 60 quetzales (about $7.80) per day working for the palm oil company Industria Chiquibul. This is below Guatemala’s minimum daily wage of 90 quetzales for the agricultural industry. Repeated complaints by both local workers and the National Council for Displaced People of Guatemala caused the company to increase wages to 91 quetzales, local farmer Jose Maria Ical told Reuters.

Given that people can no longer rely on the food and income security of their own crops, they no longer have subsistence farming to fall back on. Others in Raxruha remain unemployed due to the limited number of available job opportunities. Many people have attempted to migrate to the U.S. out of economic necessity.

Evictions and Police Violence

Some indigenous families have made claims to ancestral land and have attempted subsistence farming on land acquired by plantation companies. In October 2016, a banana plantation company evicted 80 families with the court’s support. The families resisted and the police reacted violently, shooting at indigenous farmers, burning down farmers’ homes and destroying crops. Ultimately, the families held on to their land using machetes and pesticide sprayers to defend themselves.

Indigenous Land Rights

At the end of the Guatemalan Civil War in 1996, a set of peace accords aimed to “respect indigenous community lands, resettle displaced indigenous communities, resolve land conflicts” and provide the impoverished access to land, according to analyst Doug Hertzler. However, if one considers the actions of palm plantation companies in Guatemala, it is fair to conclude that many are not fully observing these accords today. Hertzler argues that the international community provided insufficient support to uphold the promises of the accords when they underwent signing. Hertzler proposes several recommendations.

  • The Guatemalan government needs to acknowledge the land rights of indigenous people.
  • Projects “that do not have the ongoing and legitimate Free Prior and Informed Consent of
    affected indigenous peoples, as required by international law, should stop.”
  • Funding for land tenure should “prioritize community land rights” in locations where there are conflicts with companies.
  • Programs should work with indigenous communities and organizations along with the government.

Evidence from both locals and researchers suggests that palm plantations in Guatemala are harmful to the country’s indigenous communities. Altogether, the communities receive little aid. With better support and respect for indigenous rights, indigenous Guatemalans can rise out of poverty.

– Sawyer Lachance
Photo: Flickr

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A Solar Energy Initiative to Reduce Food Waste

solar energy initiativeSolar energy is a sustainable source as it is considered the most cost-effective energy form in history. A solar energy initiative to convert solar power into electricity takes less time and power than any other method of energy conversion. The sun’s function as a free resource also contributes to this fact, and as a result, many organizations have recently taken advantage of solar energy. SokoFresh is a company that provides smallholder Kenyan farmers with “mobile cold storage units that run on 100% solar energy.” This makes cold storage facilities more accessible to lower-income farmers, reducing food waste and increasing the prosperity of Kenyan farmers.

Food Waste’s Negative Impact

Over the next 30 years, Africa’s population is estimated to increase from 15% to 25% of the world population. However, as the population grows, dire food shortages are likely to occur. One way to prevent this is by reducing food waste. Globally, more than 30% of food produced for human consumption is wasted or discarded. In Africa, food loss happens predominately in the production and distribution phases of the food system. In developed countries, more than 40% of food loss “occurs at the retail and consumer levels. ”

To combat food waste in Africa, post-harvest storage is a sustainable method for preventing food loss. SokoFresh has constructed a post-harvest storage system that specifically utilizes solar energy. The method is simple as it makes for cost-effective and environmentally friendly food storage. This model can provide farmers and aggregators access to cold storage on “a need basis” using 100% solar energy.

At this point, there is no long-term data to monitor improvements in the region’s food waste. Yet, it is clear that current projects from sustainable companies such as SokoFresh have the potential to benefit Africa’s economy. Even a 1% reduction in food post-harvest losses could lead to yearly fiscal revenue of $40 million, mainly to the benefit of farmers. Solar energy and sustainable technology solutions are thus feasible methods that increase profitability and improve environmental impacts in developing nations.

Solar Energy’s Role

SokoFresh’s solar energy initiative centers on a business model that gives farmers in need access to storage for their produce. Built by the social venture studio Enviu as part of its FoodFlow program, SokoFresh can provide adequate storage conditions that supply significant market opportunities. Smallholder farmers are responsible for 90% of Kenya’s agricultural produce but lack the cold storage access that large-scale farms have. The smallholder farmers who grow avocado, mango and French beans help test the “pay-as-you-go cold storage units.”

Another solar energy innovation utilizes food waste in its technology. AuREUS is an invention created by Carvey Maigue from Mapua University in the Philippines. Utilizing “recycled crop waste,” Maigue created a compound mixed with resin to make panels that collect UV light. The panels can turn the captured light into electricity. Solutions like these provide alternative methods to traditional coal and gas methods of power. Thus, AuREUS and SokoFresh bring great promise for the future of sustainable energy.

The Future of SokoFresh

Because solar energy is the most affordable energy source, a solar energy initiative such as that of SokoFresh provides a hopeful alternative to developing countries experiencing food loss and waste. While international efforts to reduce hunger in sub-Saharan Africa have increased, most of the money has focused on boosting crop yields. A shift is now underway as companies are aiming to reduce losses instead of increasing production. SokoFresh provides an innovative solution to this problem by harnessing the power of solar energy. The future of solar energy in Kenya is hopeful. With more exposure and funding, SokoFresh can eliminate food waste and improve the nation’s wealth.

Addison Franklin
Photo: Flickr

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Bangladeshi Farmers Aided by GEMS Technology

Bangladeshi FarmersAs the COVID-19 pandemic swept through the world, smallholder Bangladeshi farmers began to suffer. Worldwide lockdowns disrupted supply chains, which led to economic loss. Agriculture is the dominant industry in Bangladesh and farmers play a significant role in the country’s economy. In Bangladesh, people who live in rural areas rely on farming for food security and income. The World Bank has partnered with the Bangladesh government to disperse emergency funds to smallholder Bangladeshi farmers using geotagging tools.

The Impact of COVID-19 on Bangladeshi Farmers

Around the world, the COVID-19 pandemic caused lockdowns and economic dilemmas. In Bangladesh, COVID-19 has critically affected about 300,000 dairy farms and about 70,000 poultry farms. The dairy industry lost $6.7 million daily. Moreover, from March 20 to April 4, 2020, the poultry industry lost more than $1.35 billion. These losses forced farmers to shut down production.

For 16.2 million vegetable-growing farm households in Bangladesh, the pandemic also proved to be detrimental. Urbanization had already caused an increase in vegetable demand. Once COVID-19 hit, supply chains to the cities broke down. Faulty supply chains caused vegetable growers to halt production and incur losses. Farmers in Bangladesh have faced food insecurity and losses of income because of the pandemic.

What is GEMS Technology?

Geo-Enabling Initiative for Monitoring and Supervision (GEMS) is a technology that collects data from the fields digitally with easy open-source tools. In other words, teams use GEMS technology as a digital monitoring platform to assess visible information. The technology helps its users understand real-time dynamics on the ground. Users can collect data on their smartphones or tablets without the internet while working in the field. This information saves on the device, and once the user reconnects the device to the internet, the data saves onto a server. The World Bank first used GEMS technology in South Sudan. Since then, the technology has improved and has been used in projects throughout Africa, Asia and the Pacific Islands.

The World Bank Assists Farmers

The World Bank and the Bangladesh government have aided Bangladeshi farmers by providing emergency cash transfers to smallholder farmers of dairy, livestock and aquaculture. A top priority for the World Bank is ensuring the correct beneficiaries receive the payments. After recognizing the difficulties in paper surveying, the World Bank decided to use GEMS-style remote supervision tools to ensure payments were sent to the correct beneficiaries. After the organization trained Bangladeshi project teams to understand the new digital tools, the teams used GEMS technology to identify beneficiaries. The technology helped to remove any double-counting and other manual entry errors and offered precise locations on maps.

Two projects have implemented GEMS technology to help Bangladeshi farmers affected by COVID-19 thus far. The Livestock & Dairy Development Project in Bangladesh used the technology to give 620,000 livestock producers emergency money transfers. Additionally, the Bangladesh Sustainable Coastal & Marine Fisheries Project gave 78,000 aquaculture farmers emergency money transfers with the help of geotagging technology.

Moving Forward

With the help of GEMS information technology, the World Bank and Bangladeshi organizations can ensure transparency in cash transfers to Bangladeshi farmers affected by COVID-19. Because the agriculture industry in Bangladesh is so vast, it is important that Bangladeshi farmers receive assistance in order to continue food production. Such assistance is imperative in order for Bangladeshi farmers to successfully recover from the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Bailey Lamb
Photo: Flickr

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USAID’s PATTA Program in Pakistan

USAID’s PATTA ProgramFarming plays a dominant role in the national economy of Pakistan. With a population of more than 200 million, Pakistan is heavily reliant on agriculture to provide food for people. Agriculture contributes almost 20% to Pakistan’s GDP, and as of 2019, employs more than 40% of the workforce. Smallholder farms are often at a disadvantage as they have limited access to improved technology, which prevents them from producing high yields of crops. To combat this issue, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has funded the Pakistan Agricultural Technology Transfer Activity (PATTA), an initiative designed to increase Pakistani farmers’ access to improved agricultural technology. USAID’s PATTA program is also designed to encourage private sector investment in agriculture to increase incomes and efficiency.

Agriculture in Pakistan

Despite the overwhelming need to preserve the agricultural sector, the industry has seen a decline in productivity over the years. Pakistan is especially vulnerable to environmental degradation and instances of water shortages and extreme temperature fluctuations have severely damaged the country’s ability to produce enough crops to feed its populace. As a result, Pakistan stands to benefit from the advancements in agricultural technology. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), these improved technologies can aid in improving agricultural productivity by 70% by the year 2050.

The PATTA Program

To assist Pakistani farmers with obtaining improved agricultural technologies, USAID funds the four-year PATTA program which began in 2017. This program “enables the private sector to give Pakistani farmers access to innovative agricultural products and management practices, which improve productivity and enhance competitiveness.” To facilitate this, USAID introduced the “Agri-Tech Hub” in 2020, a comprehensive suite of agricultural technologies with the potential to change the lives of farmers. The PATTA program encourages  private sector investment in Pakistani agriculture “to commercialize the types of agricultural technologies that enable smallholders to increase their incomes, create jobs and enhance economic growth and stability.”

Cultivating New Frontiers in Agriculture (CNFA) is an agricultural organization that is also involved with the PATTA program. This organization assists agricultural technology businesses in expanding their markets by doing cost-benefit analyses as well as creating strategies on how these businesses can provide technical support and build capacity for small farmers. Additionally, the CNFA sets up demonstration events in which businesses can display the effectiveness of their products. These events often use different mediums such as radio and the internet in order to reach many different groups of people. Overall, the CNFA is involved in every step of the PATTA program. The CNFA helps agribusinesses market their technologies effectively while making sure farmers can get their specific needs met.

PATTA’s Impact During the Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic has had dramatic impacts on agricultural production around the world. In Pakistan, PATTA has been assisting local governments in raising awareness of safety protocols through digital communication. For example, during the onset of the pandemic in early 2020, PATTA partnered with the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’s agriculture department in developing “tele-farming advisory services on agricultural technologies” through SMS and robocalls to deliver pertinent information to farmers.

PATTA has also utilized the radio in order to spread its messages. From May to July 2020, PATTA encouraged the use of agricultural technologies via radio broadcast to 23 selected districts across Pakistan, reaching approximately three million people. The use of digital communications allowed for social distancing as the pandemic prevented conventional meetings from taking place.

USAID’s PATTA program helps farmers acquire improved technologies in order to increase their crop yields. By engaging with the private sector, PATTA assists both agribusinesses and farmers in expanding. The concrete outcomes of the program are yet to be released, but nonetheless, it is clear that agricultural technologies have the potential to increase the incomes of smallholder farmers and reduce poverty in Pakistan.

– Nikhil Khanal
Photo: Flickr

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TechnoServe Bolsters India’s Economy with Coffee

TechnoServe Bolsters India’s Economy with CoffeeThe coffee industry continues to flourish as the product dominates markets in most parts of the world. Due to its popularity, coffee holds its economic value well, providing sustainable income to those in the industry. India produces a portion of this commodity. However, some regions lack the infrastructure necessary for the industry to prosper. One nonprofit called TechnoServe bolsters India’s economy with coffee.

Andhra Pradesh

TechnoServe provides an avenue through which the farmers of Andhra Pradesh, a town in India, can grow coffee more efficiently. This region of India is a nontraditional growing region. Coffee production in India originated from a desire to prevent further felling of trees for cultivation. The coffee industry provided a means of employment for the locals who live in the region. While this region has viable production capabilities, small land sizes and poor agricultural practices limit the yield potential. TechnoServe works alongside these farmers to solve these problems and assist in expanding the market potential.

Coffee was introduced to Andhra Pradesh, India, in the ’60s by the Andhra Pradesh Forest Department (APFD) to end the slash and burn agriculture that dominated the region. Ideally, by introducing a new type of cultivation, fewer trees would be cut and burned. The APFD hopes this will protect the forest and encourage sustainable communities within the region. This area specializes in Araku Coffee — globally recognized for its high quality and popularity. The Specialty Coffee Association rated Araku Coffee as a world-renowned coffee with an 88-90 out of 100. Even with the coffee’s success in the global market, many farmers still struggle to experience individual economic stability.

Impact of TechnoServe

One aspect of coffee cultivation TechnoServe hopes to address is the picking of coffee cherries. Unlike a typical harvest, coffee cherries ripen at different rates, making it imperative for farmers to pick only the individual ripe fruit. This labor-intensive task requires focused knowledge of coffee ripening and the skills to recognize when the coffee is ready to be harvested. When farmers pick underripe fruit, it lessens the overall quality of the coffee produced. Because this is a nontraditional growing region, many farmers in Andhra Pradesh, India, do not have access to the knowledge necessary to improve these practices. TechnoServe’s assistance has provided these farmers with training and knowledge to bolster economic potential.

One result of TechnoServe’s influence is that farmers no longer need to rely on village middlemen for economic stability. Due to a lack of consistent income, some farmers ended up indebted to middlemen who were sought out to help families do things such as send their children to school. This debt trap limited the potential of many who found themselves incapable of digging themselves out.

Another aspect of TechnoServe’s training program is the involvement of the whole family. Palika, a farmer from Andhra Pradesh, India, explains how — when he wanted to expand his business and learn new coffee cultivation techniques — his wife also learned. Learning together built a partnership between the two with a common goal as they moved up the value chain.

Importance of TechnoServe

India’s coffee market, historically, remains export-oriented. However, with the increasing popularity and usage of small-scale farmers, facilitating these exports prevents farmers from maintaining a decent profit. Some farmers lose at least 10% of the production potential to local traders. TechnoServe hopes to end these losses by utilizing farmer producer organizations (FPOs) to take the product to market.

Utilizing the FPO market for coffee sales will improve the economic potential for farmers like Palika who hope to make their businesses profitable. Through the transformation of cultivation practices in Andhra Pradesh, India, Technoserve bolsters India’s economy and continues to instill hope for the future of Araku’s coffee industry.

– Kate Lucht
Photo: Flickr

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TechnoServe Bolsters India’s Economy with Coffee

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